What is the History of Civil Rights in the United States?
If you’re curious about the history of civil rights in the United States, there are many factors to consider. The first thing to understand is that African Americans were historically and legally disenfranchised. The idea behind the civil rights movement was to provide a voice to those who were powerless. In other words, they wanted to be heard, and they wanted to be treated as human beings. There was a large network of people who helped the civil rights movement become a reality.
President Johnson’s strategy to pass the civil rights bill
President Johnson’s strategy to pass the civil right’s bill was not an easy one. He was battling against the opposition of the Southern Democrats and many Republicans. To overcome these obstacles, Johnson used his personal power and charm. He threatened Georgia Senator Richard Russell to get the bill passed. In addition, he worked telephones to persuade senators to pass the bill.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a great example of how effective presidential powers can be. Johnson and Kennedy used television to stoke the political climate and telephone calls to exert pressure on Congress. A phone call from the president can have a powerful psychological effect on people, as well as influence their self-esteem.
President Johnson’s strategy to pass the civil right bill faced opposition from radical Republicans in the Middle West and elsewhere. Many southern states had already reconstructed, and the idea of establishing “black codes” to regulate freedmen’s rights had gained ground in many places. These radical Republicans were aided by the support of northerners.
The Johnson administration was concerned about the growing backlash from white people in the urban northeast. As a result, Barry Goldwater requested a meeting with the president at the White House to discuss the problem of race. After some internal debate, Johnson agreed to his request. Goldwater then slipped in through the Southwest Gate and met with the president for 15 minutes.
Despite the fact that the Democratic leadership in the Senate had to fight the filibuster, Johnson’s strategy for passing the civil rights bill was successful. This strategy influenced a number of senators to support the bill. On June 10 of 1964, the Senate invoked cloture, which ended the longest filibuster in Senate history. Finally, the bill was passed by the Senate on July 2, 1964. The Voting Rights Act became law in 1965.
Robert Kennedy’s speech on civil rights
The assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 shook the nation. Robert Kennedy, who was then running for president, gave a speech to the nation following the King’s death. His goal was to raise awareness and strengthen attitudes toward the situation. His main points included why the country should not resort to violence and why love and compassion should be the norm.
The African American vote was pivotal in Kennedy’s election. After achieving election, he set out to address the nation about the issue. During his speech on civil rights, he referred to the struggle for freedom as a moral issue. During the Civil Rights movement, the Kennedy administration gave substantial attention to the southern freedom struggle.
In his speech, Kennedy eulogized civil rights leader Martin Luther King, called for a world free of social injustice, and addressed his brother’s assassination. Many have hailed it as one of the greatest political orations of the 20th century. However, despite the tragedy of the assassination of his brother, RFK’s words still carry the same message.
In 1962, President Kennedy made the biggest move for civil rights since Reconstruction. A Gallup poll revealed that fifty percent of the nation thought he was pushing integration too fast. While he remained cautious and reserved in his support for the cause, he nonetheless praised the cooperation of Southerners. He believed that persistence and compassion would accomplish his goals.
The speech was given during a trip by the future President to the Midwest to kick-off his presidential campaign. He visited South Bend and Muncie and made three campaign stops. In one of these stops, a young black man asked Kennedy whether he believed that white people had good intentions in treating minority groups with respect. Kennedy responded that the majority of Americans wanted to do the right thing.
During the 1960s, SNCC became a permanent organization. Marion Barry was elected the first chairman. The group was largely successful, but there were also tensions between SNCC and the SCLC. The SNCC also played a crucial role in organizing the first Freedom Rides. The Freedom Rides were protests in which mixed-race passengers rode interstate buses and met with violent resistance from white segregationist Southerners and local law enforcement. Hundreds were arrested and even threatened with death. The movement gained national attention and eventually led to the Interstate Commerce Commission mandating full desegregation of interstate travel facilities.
After the 1960s, SNCC’s success waned. The organization was weakened by internal conflicts and external attacks. It lost its northern financial backing. In addition, its chairman, H. “Rap” Brown, pushed for militancy among urban blacks. This weakened the organization’s ability to sustain organizing efforts. It also became a target of the FBI and the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s COINTELPRO program, which aimed to eliminate black militancy.
Eventually, SNCC split from more conservative civil rights leaders and became more radical. During this time, Stokely Carmichael adopted the Black Power Movement’s principles and endorsed violence as legitimate self-defense. His supporters also pushed for the formation of an all-black political party in Mississippi. In the late 1960s, the SNCC opposed the Vietnam War. Later, some SNCC members joined the Black Panther Party, which rejected nonviolent principles.
SNCC also became a focal point of the student movement. Activists in the group often used the student paper Student Voice as a platform for their protests. They found the daily press unreliable and wanted their own story to be told. Their demands were genuine, comprehensive, and penetrating. They were also fueled by their religious beliefs.
Brown v Board of Education decision
In 1954, racial segregation in public schools was legal in large parts of the United States. Following the landmark Plessy v. Ferguson decision, which made segregated public facilities legal, civil rights groups sought to challenge this practice. The NAACP filed class-action lawsuits on behalf of black schoolchildren, seeking court orders to allow black students to attend white public schools.
The decision changed the course of education in America forever. In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. While the original decision did not spell out a concrete strategy for ending segregation, the subsequent Brown II decision called on states to desegregate schools deliberately.
The case was argued twice, in 1952 and 1954, with Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American to sit on the Supreme Court, on behalf of the plaintiffs. Marshall argued that segregated schools were not equal and that they created a sense of inferiority for black children. Marshall also argued that segregation was harmful to black children, as it prevented them from receiving a quality education.
Linda Brown, then eight years old, was a black student who had to travel for nearly an hour to attend a white school. Public school systems could legally separate students of different races, but they could not do so for long. The Supreme Court had ruled in 1896 that “buildings and equipment must be equal for all students.”
Although the Brown v Board of Education decision was a critical step in school desegregation, the impact of the case is still felt today. Today, black students in most Southern states attend schools where the majority of students are white. By the 1970s, legal school segregation laws ended, but the practice of segregation continued. The percentage of white students in schools with majority-black enrollment rose from zero to 28 percent. Currently, this proportion is decreasing.
SNCC’s role in eradicating lynching
The SNCC was a group that worked to end the practice of lynching. It began organizing efforts in volatile urban black ghettos. However, the group failed to mobilize enough political power to make a real difference. The leadership of the group changed hands multiple times, and the group suffered internal conflicts and external attacks. Eventually, it ceased to exist. In the years following King’s assassination, SNCC became weakened and lost its financial support. By 1967, it had no more than 130 employees, and it had almost no branches. By 1973, it was no longer active.
During the 1960s, the SNCC took part in a number of civil rights activities. One major civil rights event was the Freedom Rides. In May 1961, SNCC members rode buses through the South to enforce interstate travel desegregation. However, the Freedom Riders encountered considerable resistance from segregationists. SNCC members faced violence in Alabama and elsewhere. In response, a new group of freedom riders, led by Diane Nash, continued the ride into Mississippi.
The report also detailed state-by-state patterns in lynchings, based on race, gender, and alleged crime. The book’s counter-mapping emphasized the rationality of anti-lynching as a solution to racial violence.
In the history of civil rights, lynching was a major issue in the U.S. The practice of lynching had long been a fixture in American society. Between 1877 and 1950, at least four thousand African Americans were murdered by white lynch mobs. The bodies of those murdered were subjected to horrific treatment. Native Americans, Chinese, and Mexicans were also victims of lynching.
In 1919, the NAACP published Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, which included maps of deaths caused by mob violence. This document helped to frame the national scope of the phenomenon and reshaped public concern about the problem of lynching.