The Impact of War on Livelihoods and the Need to Foster a Post-Conflict Economy
This book addresses the impact of conflict on livelihoods by drawing on the experience of different conflict-affected countries. It includes the perspectives of livelihood experts, researchers, and civil society advocates. It also includes case studies of livelihoods in 16 conflict-affected countries.
Threats to human security arise from socio-political, economic, health-related, and environmental areas
Human security is the protection of individuals and communities from chronic and sudden threats. It also involves freedom from fear and want. Traditionally, security is associated with the state. A state’s primary function is to protect its citizens from external aggression, but the capacity of some states to do so has been called into question. Today, threats to human security come from many areas.
Human security is often at risk when the environment and basic infrastructure are damaged. A war or civil unrest may destroy basic infrastructure and public health, reducing the country’s ability to rebuild. In addition, disasters exacerbate the threat of infectious diseases and increase the need for basic services.
Changing climate trends are also contributing to food insecurity. Extreme weather events can increase the risk of food shortages and migration, causing massive displacement and conflict.
Landmines hamper post-conflict recovery
Despite efforts to eliminate them, landmines remain an ongoing threat to post-conflict recovery in many countries. They not only kill people, but also prevent access to roads, markets, schools, and hospitals. Additionally, they destroy farming land, which is vital for post-conflict reconstruction. Thankfully, there are organizations like the Marshall Legacy Institute that are helping to eradicate this problem. Their work includes training Mine Detection Dogs to detect and neutralize landmines.
Post-conflict recovery in Angola is hampered by landmines, which make it impossible for aid workers and government officials to access the areas most in need. In addition to destroying infrastructure, landmines also impede agricultural productivity, and prevent the development of new land. In addition, the lingering danger of landmines is particularly dangerous for refugees and other people in need of assistance.
The threat posed by landmines is far greater than the danger posed by other forms of conflict. These weapons not only kill people and block their access to food and water, but they also hinder the ability of communities to rebuild their lives. As a result, many countries have to spend money clearing landmines instead of spending it on education and other important goals. This is a major setback for post-conflict recovery efforts.
Insurgency leaders exploit grievances
Historically, insurgencies have been driven by grievances, especially in cultures that have an ingrained sense of justice. The ill treatment of one of a group’s members triggers a sense of duty to seek retribution. For example, a segment of the insurgency in Iraq grew out of a strong sense of male honor. Today, this grievance is often cited as the most valid reason for insurgency, and insurgents have increasingly used it as their rationale.
However, these motivation clusters vary across cultures. Generally speaking, the higher the level of the motivation cluster, the more involvement one is likely to feel. Insurgency leaders can exploit these grievances to recruit those who share similar ideals.
The motivation for insurgency can be very complex. It may include emotions, feelings, perceptions, and rational decision-making. Some insurgents might be motivated by material goods, power, or status. But most of them do not seek political change. They are more interested in a system that empowers them and leaves them alone. Ultimately, insurgency is driven by unmet psychological needs.
Conflicts are often triggered by interstate tensions
Conflicts often cause a major drop in trade and investment in the affected country. According to the World Bank, countries that have at-war neighbours experience an average reduction of 0.5% in annual growth. Additionally, conflict deters investment, especially foreign investment. Africa suffers from one of the lowest levels of foreign investment in the world, and the trade barriers caused by conflict are particularly challenging for landlocked countries.
Interstate tensions are also a major factor in triggering armed conflict. Moreover, unemployment among combat veterans and the widespread availability of weapons are other factors that can spark conflict. In addition, the fate of weapons stockpiles can fuel tensions between groups. In Angola, for example, since its independence in 1975, there have been frequent conflicts. Nevertheless, in 2002, a ceasefire was established, and a UN peacekeeping mission was established. However, conflict continues in Cabinda, despite the ceasefire.
The United States is committed to stabilizing conflict-affected areas, and it has made substantial aid to countries in fragile and war-torn areas. However, it recognizes that international aid is not the only answer to the problem. It must be accompanied by regional and national leadership in order to create long-term stability and post-conflict economies.